On this day in 1989 the Galileo spacecraft was launched to explore Jupiter and its moons.
Galileo was an American unmanned spacecraft that studied the planet Jupiter and its moons, as well as several other Solar System bodies. Named after the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei, it consisted of an orbiter and an entry probe. It was delivered into Earth orbit on October 18, 1989 by Space Shuttle Atlantis. Galileo arrived at Jupiter on December 7, 1995, after gravitational assist flybys of Venus and Earth, and became the first spacecraft to orbit Jupiter. It launched the first probe into Jupiter, directly measuring its atmosphere. Despite suffering major antenna problems, Galileo achieved the first asteroid flyby, of 951 Gaspra, and discovered the first asteroid moon, Dactyl, around 243 Ida. In 1994, Galileo observed Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9’s collision with Jupiter.
Jupiter’s atmospheric composition and ammonia clouds were recorded, the clouds possibly created by outflows from the lower depths of the atmosphere. Io’s volcanism and plasma interactions with Jupiter’s atmosphere were also recorded. The data Galileo collected supported the theory of a liquid ocean under the icy surface of Europa, and there were indications of similar liquid-saltwater layers under the surfaces of Ganymede and Callisto. Ganymede was shown to possess a magnetic field and the spacecraft found new evidence for exospheres around Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Galileo also discovered that Jupiter’s faint ring system consists of dust from impacts on the four small inner moons. The extent and structure of Jupiter’s magnetosphere was also mapped.
On September 21, 2003, after 14 years in space and 8 years in the Jovian system, Galileo’s mission was terminated by sending it into Jupiter’s atmosphere at a speed of over 48 kilometers per second (30 mi/s), eliminating the possibility of contaminating local moons with terrestrial bacteria. (source)
Aldebaran, Venus, Jupiter and Pleiades – Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Image credit: Luis Argerich
Moon, Mercury, Jupiter and Mars
Credit: Mike Salway
On this day in 1977 was launched the space probe Voyager 1.
Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5, 1977. Part of the Voyager program to study the outer Solar System, Voyager 1 launched 16 days after its twin, Voyager 2. Having operated for 41 years as of September 5, 2018, the spacecraft still communicates with the Deep Space Network to receive routine commands and return data. At a distance of 142.31 astronomical units from the Sun as of June 4, 2018, it is the most distant man-made object from Earth.
The probe’s objectives included flybys of Jupiter, Saturn, and Saturn’s largest moon, Titan. While the spacecraft’s course could have been altered to include a Pluto encounter by forgoing the Titan flyby, exploration of the moon, which was known to have a substantial atmosphere, took priority. It studied the weather, magnetic fields and rings of the two planets and was the first probe to provide detailed images of their moons. (read more)
Voyager 1 Trajectory through the Solar System
Jupiter and Io taken by the Cassini spacecraft on December 1, 2000.
Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona
Jupiter is perpetually covered with clouds composed of ammonia crystals and possibly ammonium hydrosulfide. The clouds are located in the tropopause and are arranged into bands of different latitudes, known as tropical regions. These are sub-divided into lighter-hued zones and darker belts. The interactions of these conflicting circulation patterns cause storms and turbulence. Wind speeds of 100 m/s (360 km/h) are common in zonal jets. The zones have been observed to vary in width, color and intensity from year to year, but they have remained sufficiently stable for scientists to give them identifying designations.
The cloud layer is only about 50 km (31 mi) deep, and consists of at least two decks of clouds: a thick lower deck and a thin clearer region. There may also be a thin layer of water clouds underlying the ammonia layer. Supporting the idea of water clouds are the flashes of lightning detected in the atmosphere of Jupiter. These electrical discharges can be up to a thousand times as powerful as lightning on Earth. The water clouds are assumed to generate thunderstorms in the same way as terrestrial thunderstorms, driven by the heat rising from the interior.
Jupiter has 12 newly discovered moons!! I really relate to Valetudo, for some reason…
This unusual image was taken at dusk from Coral Towers Observatory using a modified Canon 5D Mk II and 600 mm lens plus extenders. It shows Jupiter rising through a thick bank of clouds on the eastern horizon. The star-like object immediately below Jupiter is probably the combined light from Io and Europa.
Image credit: Joseph Brimacombe
Venus, Jupiter and Mars at Dawn – Oct 22, 2015
Image credit: Joseph Brimacombe
The puzzling, fascinating surface of Jupiter’s icy moon Europa looms large in this newly-reprocessed color view, made from images taken by NASA’s Galileo spacecraft in the late 1990s. This is the color view of Europa from Galileo that shows the largest portion of the moon’s surface at the highest resolution.
Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SETI Institute